The Anindilyakwa Land Council (ALC) represents the Traditional Owners of the Groote archipelago. The ALC officially commenced in 1991; replacing the role previously carried out by the Northern Land Council. The Northern Land Council, however, continues to function as the Native Title Representative body for the Groote Archipelago region. The ALC functions to ascertain and express the wishes and opinions of the Anindilyakwa people as to the management of the land and sea in the Groote archipelago region, to protect interests of Traditional Owners, to assist in protection of sacred sites, to assist Anindilyakwa people in traditional land claims, to negotiate with persons desiring to obtain an estate or interest in the land, to assist Traditional Owners in carrying out commercial activity, and to supervise and provide administrative and other assistance for Land Trusts holding Indigenous land in the Groote archipelago region.
The Anindilyakwa Land Council has jurisdiction over a large area of land and sea in the Groote Archipelago with Traditional Owners of land and sea country residing in the communities of Angurugu and Umbakumba on Groote Eylandt, and at Milyakburra on Bickerton Island. Anindilyakwa society is comprised of 14 clans divided into two moieties with most community members holding language competence in Anindilyakwa and one of the mainland languages such as Nunggubuyu or Yolngu Matha.